My Own Story

I was a young Resident in Pediatric Surgery at the time in Guadalajara, Mexico. One night getting out of surgery, I had a Phone Call from Torreón, 450 miles away from Guadalajara. “Is your mother with you in Guadalajara? We cannot find her.” She was wandering along the streets. She lost her car, but she…

Currently available therapies for Alzheimer

Drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic features, dosing, safety, tolerability, formulation, and manufacturing of pharmacological agents are part of the drug development cycle. A number of in vivo, in vitro and ex-vivo studies, in addition to epidemiologic information aid in identifying some approved drugs which might be repurposed for use in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. The total…

The Lipids Issue in the Brain

(Sept. 2021) Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including proteinopathies such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, which are characterized by the deposition of aggregated proteins in the form of insoluble fibrils or plaques. The distinct molecular processes resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration are well studied but still not fully understood….

New Medications in Alzheimer

(May 2020) Much of Alzheimer disease (AD) research has been traditionally based on the use of animals, which have been extensively applied in an effort to both improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to test novel therapeutic approaches. However, decades of such research have not effectively translated into substantial therapeutic…

SOME OXIDATIVE-STRESS-RELATED FACTS ABOUT THE BRAIN

There is no organ as sensitive as the brain to changes in energetic metabolism. It consumes 20% of all the O2 when a person is at rest, and 25% of total body glucose utilization. This consumption is 10 times the rate of the rest of the body per gram of tissue. Taking into account a…

Melatonin in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Alzheimer_s disease (AD) is a highly complex neurodegenerative disorder of the aged that has multiple factors which contribute to its etiology in terms of initiation and progression. This review summarizes these diverse aspects of this form of dementia. Several hypotheses, often with overlapping features, have been formulated to explain this debilitating condition. Perhaps the best-known…

Cannabinoids

(August 2019) The mechanisms involved in Alzheimer’s disease are not completely understood and how astrocytes and their gliotransmission contribute to this neurodegenerative disease remains to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) induces neuronal death by a mechanism that involves the excitotoxic release of ATP and glutamate associated to astroglial hemichannel…

Diabetes, the Hostile Shade

(June 2019) “Diabetes is a disease which often shows itself in families in which insanity prevails.” Sir HenryMaudsley, The Pathology ofMind, 1879. There are several oxidative stress-related pathways interconnecting Alzheimer’s disease and type II diabetes, two public health problems worldwide. Coincidences are so compelling that it is attractive to speculate they are the same disorder….

Examining the Risk Factors in Neurodegeneration

(March 2019) HaplotypesBrain is the most energetically demanding organ of the body, and is thus vulnerable to even modest decline in ATP generation. Multiple neurodegenerative diseases are associated with decline in mitochondrial function, e.g., Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis and multiple neuropathies. Genetic variances in the mitochondrial genome can modify bioenergetic and respiratory phenotypes, at both…

Is There a Role for Vitamins in Neurodegeneration?

(February 2019) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population, currently affecting 46 million people worldwide. Histopathologically, the disease is characterized by the occurrence of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles containing the microtubule-associated protein tau. Aβ peptides are derived from the…

Vaccines for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease

(December 2018) Since AN-1792 vaccine induced autoimmune encephalitis, several pharmaceutical companies are now concentrated in developing antibody therapy in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Each antibody has own characteristics. Thus, it is unpredictable at present which antibody is the most beneficial until we see the result of clinical trials. If disease modifying antibodies were found, they will…

The Price to Pay. An economic model of Parkinson’s disease

(October 2018) Multiple studies describe progression, dementia rates, direct and indirect costs, and health utility by Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage, but research has not incorporated these data into a model to evaluate possible economic consequences of slowing progression. This study aimed to model the course of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and describe the economic consequences…